Gas, how will Italy run without Russia? Ships, Regasification Plant, Africa: New Corriere.it Map

Press on renewable acceleration. But not only that. Investing in gas, which is considered a source of change, will gradually diminish but has also become irresistibly central as it expands into fuel due to the Ukraine war and possible sanctions on Russia. How to replace 29 billion cubic meters (76 of the cost in 2021) as soon as possible? There are options to bypass Moscow. It is possible to expand the flow of gas pipelines carrying methane from other countries, increase the capacity of the existing three regasifiers to purchase more LNG, build a new regasification plant (two projects are already ready) and adopt smaller plants. . The road to independence from Russian gas will not be short, but above all there will be costs that the system did not take into account. And the choices have to be made, because – as explained by Simona Benedettini, an energy economist at the Bruno Leoni Institute – the road is moving and there is still no clear picture of what alternative sources will be and how they will be implemented.

Regasifiers in Italy

Let’s start with what is already being done. In regasification, of the three existing plants, the Adriatic LNG located off the coast of Rovigo has already increased its capacity by 8 to 9 billion cubic meters per year and could cost up to 11 billion in 30 months (without approval barriers). Between 130 and 150 million. Olt di Livorno (49% owned by Snam and 48.24% of Australian funds by First Century Investors) can grow from 3.75 billion cubic meters to 4.25 billion without particularly high investment. Costs begin to rise with LNG carriers: for purchases we are talking about a figure between 300 and 400 million euros (Financial Times), where the rent is 50 million a year. However, to build another regasification plant, more costs have to be taken into consideration.


Two new projects

Two projects are already ready and approved: 8 billion cubic meters at the Porto Empedocle Enel and 8 to 12 billion at a second Gioia Toure in Surgenia. The two companies estimate that each one billion will cost about three years. But here comes the key to environmental change. Who invests one billion in the face of a limited time horizon – Dario Soria, Asokostiary general manager who represents logistics companies – asks why in the medium term gas plants will be unused according to fit for 55 packages? The question is whether the government wants a long-term mix and whether the gas falls into it. Investments are made only if you have a clear vision of energy policy and have a long term contract. An example? Edison has a 25-year contract with Adriatic LNG for 6.4 billion cubic meters, which will expire in 2034. The same applies to small plants. Two are already underway, one in Oristano and the other in Ravenna, and 17 other projects at various stages with a total capacity of more than 370,000 cubic meters, with an investment of about বিল 2 billion by 2026, according to the Asogaslicuidi-Federchimica Association. But to create them – says President Andrea Arz – operators need certainty and a regulatory framework that is not a stimulus and a barrier.

Gas pipeline

Then there is the gas pipeline. With the transit from Algeria to Mazara del Vallo (Tp) – where Prime Minister Mario Draghi’s mission has just ended with an agreement between Annie and Sonatrach to increase supplies – the flow will increase to 9 billion cubic meters per year by 2024. By 2021, 21 billion cubic meters have arrived from Algiers, making North Africa the second largest supplier. Pipes already have capacity – explained Christian Signoretto, president of ANIGAS – and the flow could increase to 9 billion, absorbing what is called excess capacity. Even TAP, which transports Azerbaijani methane to Melendugno (Le) in the short term, can increase the flow rate by 2.5 billion without investment and, if the day-to-day average is maintained, could reach over 10 billion a year. And it is being considered to double the tap. The times are approximately 65 months with an intervention that does not require the laying of pipes but the adjustment of upstream pressure and the construction of two compression stations, one in Greece and one in Albania. Also, upstream investment should be made in Azerbaijan. From Libya, the total capacity of the greenstream coming to Gela is 11.5 billion cubic meters and 3 billion in 2021.

Network to the south

But Mazara, Gela or Melendugno or LNG need to change geography in the south, in the medium-long term, to get more gas to Porto Empedocle or Gioia Touro. Presumably – the Note Signoreto – would need to adapt to the network operated by Snam, which today receives 30 billion cubic meters per year from Tarvisio to allow gas to reach Puglia and Sicily at a higher cost in the Po Valley. The cost of raw materials has to be added to the cost of infrastructure. If we talk about collecting alternative volumes of natural gas and LNG – Simona Benedettini explains – there will definitely be additional costs. In the case of LNG, we will probably pay more than import through pipeline, due to the high cost associated with LNG production and transportation and because European demand is associated with Asian demand for a product that is unlikely to be able to. To adapt over time. Fast.

Renewable

Then there is the chapter on green origin, which is necessary for the purpose of European decarbonization. According to Elettricit Futura, with an investment of 85 billion euros, 60 gigawatts could be achieved in three years – explained President Agostino Ray Reboudagno – which would save 15 billion cubic meters of gas. Another aid will come from biomethane: Today we produce 0.3 billion cubic meters, which will be one billion in 2024 and over 6 billion in 2030, according to the NRP. For the grid, Turner has invested 18 18.1 billion in industrial plans, most of which are effective for renewable integration.

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